Card Dealing Ergonomics

Blackjack Dealers Develop Carpal Tunnel Syndrome


Carpal tunnel syndrome and other repetitive motion injuries (RMI) are triggered by repetitive card extraction. Thumb and index fingers are also continually placed in circumduction to flip cards, contributing to hand and wrist injuries.


All dealers have differing techniques with similar injuries resulting in the eventual inability to effectively deal cards. The action of dealing and exhibiting cards had to remain fluid, effective and efficient.

Downward finger force for card extraction

Thumb & index finger opposition for card flip

3 oz. repeated impact with each card extracted affecting finger structures


The approach was a radical design of a rotating blackjack card shoe embedded into existing blackjack tables. The new design allowed card extraction without the injurious hand, wrist or finger postures.


Final design completely eliminated adverse card dealing postures.

Card extracted in the horizontal plane

Sliding action replaced downward forced extraction

Rotating embedded shoe design